500 Franken Inhaltsverzeichnis
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Under the emperors, Domitian , Trajan and Hadrian , the Rhaetian Limes was built as a border facing the Germanic tribes to the north. This defensive line ran through the south of Franconia and described an arc across the region whose northernmost point lay at present-day Gunzenhausen.
Fortified settlements such as the Gelbe Bürg at Dittenheim controlled the new areas. To which tribe their occupants belonged is unknown in most cases.
However, it is likely that it was mainly Alemanni and Juthungi in especially in the south. The reasons are not entirely clear, but it could have been as a result of invasions by the Huns which thus triggered the Great Migration.
In many cases, however, it was probably conquest by the Franks that spelt the end of these hilltop settlements.
With their victories over the heartlands of the Alamanni and Thuringians in the 6th century, the present region of Franconia also fell to the Franks.
Later, the diocese of Bamberg was added. The majority of the population of Franconia was pagan well into the Early Middle Ages , The first people to spread the Christian faith strongly were wandering Irish Anglo-Saxon monks in the early 7th century.
Saint Kilian , who together with his companions, Saint Colman and Saint Totnan are considered to be the apostles to the Franks, suffering martyrdom in Würzburg in the late 7th century, probably did not encounter any pagans in the ducal court.
It was probably Saint Boniface who carried the Christian mission deep into the heart of the ordinary population of Franconia.
In the mid-9th century the tribal Duchy of Franconia emerged, one of the five tribal or stem duchies of East Francia. It extended as far west as Speyer , Mainz , and Worms west of the Rhine and even included Frankfurt "ford of the Franks".
In the early 10th century, the Babenbergs and Conradines fought for power in Franconia. Ultimately this discord led to the Babenberg Feud which was fuelled and controlled by the crown.
The outcome of this feud meant the loss of power for the Babenbergs, but indirectly resulted in the Conradines winning the crown of East Francia.
Sometime around , Conrad succeeded in establishing his ducal hegemony over Franconia, but when the direct Carolingian male line failed in , Conrad was acclaimed King of the Germans , largely because of his weak position in his own duchy.
Franconia, like Alamannia was fairly fragmented and the duke's position was often disputed between the chief families.
Conrad had granted Franconia to his brother Eberhard on his succession, but when Eberhard rebelled against Otto I in , he was deposed from his duchy, which disintegrated in on Eberhard's death into West or Rhenish Franconia Francia Rhenensis code: lat promoted to code: la , and East Franconia Francia Orientalis [note 1] and was directly subordinated to the Reich.
Only after that was the former Francia Orientalis code: lat promoted to code: la considered to be under the sphere of the bishops of Würzburg as the true Franconia, its territory gradually shrinking to its present area.
Meanwhile, the inhabitants of parts of present-day Upper and Middle Franconia, who were not under the control of Würzburg, probably also considered themselves to be Franks at that time, and certainly their dialect distinguished them from the inhabitants of Bavaria and Swabia.
Unlike the other stem duchies, Franconia became the homeland and power base of East Frankish and German kings after the Ottonians died out in In , the later canonized Henry II founded the Bishopric of Bamberg and endowed it with rich estates.
From the 12th century Nuremberg Castle was the seat of the Burgraviate of Nuremberg. The burgraviate was ruled from about by the Zollerns, the Franconian line of the later House of Hohenzollern , which provided the German emperors of the 19th and 20th century.
During the time when there was no emperor, the Interregnum — , some territorial princes became ever more powerful. After the Interregnum, however, the rulers succeeded in re-establishing a stronger royal lordship in Franconia.
In the Swabian League of Cities was founded and was joined later by several Franconian imperial cities. The foundation of many schools and hospitals and the construction of numerous churches and castles in this area goes back to the work of this Roman Catholic military order.
The residence place of the bailiwick was at Ellingen until when it was transferred to today's Bad Mergentheim.
John worked in the Bishopric of Würzburg and had short term commands. As of the 13th century, the following states, among others, had formed in the territory of the former Duchy:.
This led in to the formation of the Franconian Circle. As during the late Middle Ages, the bishops of Würzburg used the nominal title of Duke of Franconia during the time of the Imperial Circle.
Members of the Franconian Circle included the imperial cities, the prince-bishoprics, the Bailiwick of Franconia of the Teutonic Order and several counties.
The Imperial Knights with their tiny territories, of which there was a particularly large number in Franconia, were outside the Circle assembly and, until , formed the Franconian Knights Circle Fränkischer Ritterkreis consisting of six Knights' Cantons.
Because the extent of Franconia, already referred to above, is disputed, there were many areas that might be counted as part of Franconia today, that lay outside the Franconian Circle.
In the 16th century, the College of Franconian Counts was founded to represent the interests of the counts in Franconia.
Franconia played an important role in the spread of the Reformation initiated by Martin Luther ,  Nuremberg being one of the places where the Luther Bible was printed.
Important Baptist centres were Königsberg and Nuremberg. In , the burden of heavy taxation and socage combined with new, liberal ideas that chimed with the Reformation movement, unleashed the German Peasants' War.
The Würzburg area was particularly hard hit with numerous castles and monasteries being burned down. From , Margrave Albert Alcibiades attempted to break the supremacy of the mighty imperial city of Nuremberg and to secularise the ecclesial estates in the Second Margrave War ,  to create a duchy over which he would rule.
In , the reformed princes merged into a so-called Union within the Empire. In Franconia, the margraves of Ansbach and Bayreuth as well as the imperial cities were part of this alliance.
The Catholic side responded in with a counter-alliance, the League. The conflicts between the two camps ultimately resulted in the Thirty Years' War , which was the greatest strain on the cohesion of the Franconian Circle  Initially, Franconia was not a theatre of war, although marauding armies repeatedly crossed its territory.
However, in , Swedish troops under Gustavus Adolphus advanced into Franconia and established a large encampment in summer around Nuremberg.
Franconia was one of the poorest regions in the Empire and lost its imperial political significance. Franconia never developed into a unified territorial state, because the patchwork quilt of small states Kleinstaaterei survived the Middle Ages and lasted until the 18th century.
The Circle also developed early forms of a welfare state. Most of modern-day Franconia became part of Bavaria in thanks to Bavaria's alliance with Napoleon.
Culturally it is in many ways different from Bavaria proper "Altbayern", Old Bavaria , however. The ancient name was resurrected in by Ludwig I of Bavaria.
In , what was to become the Kingdom of Bavaria was given large parts of Franconia through the enactment of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss under pressure from Napoleon for secularization and mediatisation.
In order to merge the patchwork quilt of small states in Franconia and Swabia into a greater Bavaria, Maximilian Joseph Montgelas reformed the political structure.
From to , the Kingdom of Bavaria built the Ludwig Canal from Bamberg to Kelheim, which was only abandoned in The first locomotive to run on German soil steamed from Nuremberg to Fürth on 7 December After the First World War the monarchy in Bavaria was abolished, but the state could not agree on a compromise between a Soviet system and parliamentarianism.
This caused fighting between the opposing camps and the then prime minister was shot. As a result, the government fled to Bamberg in , where the Bamberg Constitution was adopted while, in Munich, the Bavarian Soviet Republic reigned briefly.
During the Nazi era Nuremberg played a prominent role in the self-expression of the National Socialists as the permanent seat of the Nazi Party.
The first Hitler Monument in Germany was established there in April The attack brought the town negative press coverage worldwide.
Like all parts of the German Reich, Franconia was badly affected by Allied air raids. Nuremberg, as a major industrial centre and transportation hub, was hit particularly hard.
Between and the city was the target of dozens of air raids. Many other places were also affected by air raids. By contrast, the old town of Bamberg was almost completely spared.
The Battle of Nuremberg lasted five days and resulted in at least deaths. For the first time, the representatives of a sovereign state were held accountable for their actions.
In autumn , the Free State of Bavaria was reconstituted with the enactment of the Bavarian Constitution. Beginning in , refugees and displaced persons from Eastern Europe were settled particularly in rural areas.
In Lower and Upper Franconia, there was still the problem, however, of the zone along the Inner German Border which was a long way from the markets for its agricultural produce, and was affected by migration and relatively high unemployment,  which is why these areas received special support from federal and state governments.
By contrast, the state of Thuringia was restored by the Soviets in In in the course of the administrative reform in East Germany , the state of Thuringia was relieved of its function.
There were protests in the Franconian territories too, for example in Schmalkalden. In the years from to an administrative reform was carried out in Bavaria with the aim of creating more efficient municipalities Gemeinden and counties Landkreise.
Against sometimes great protests by the population, the number of municipalities was reduced by a third and the number of counties by about a half.
Since Die Wende , new markets have opened up for the Franconian region of Bavaria in the new formerly East German federal states and the Czech Republic, enabling the economy to recover.
A large part of the population of Franconia, which has a population of five million,  consider themselves Franconians Franken , in German homonymous with the name of the historical Franks , a sub-ethnic group of the German people alongside Alemanni , Swabians , Bavarians , Thuringians and Saxons.
Such an ethnic identity is generally not shared by other parts of the Franconian-speaking area members of which may identify as Rhine Franconians Rheinfranken or Moselle Franconians Moselfranken.
With the exception of Heilbronn , all cities in Franconia and all towns with a population of over 50, are within the Free State of Bavaria.
In Middle Franconia, in the metropolitan region of Nuremberg there is a densely populated urban area consisting of Nuremberg, Fürth, Erlangen and Schwabach.
Nuremberg is the fourteenth largest city in Germany and the second largest in Bavaria. The largest settlements in Baden-Württemberg's Franconian region are Heilbronn pop: , , Schwäbisch Hall 37, and Crailsheim 32, In the Middle Ages Franconia, with its numerous towns, was separate and not part of other territories such as the Duchy of Bavaria.
Many towns grew up along large rivers or were founded by the prince-bishops and nobility. Even the Hohenstaufens operated in many towns, most of which later became Imperial Cities with a strong orientation towards Nuremberg.
German is the official language and also the lingua franca. Numerous other languages are spoken that come from other language regions or the native countries of immigrants.
East Franconian German , the dialect spoken in Franconia, is very different from the Austro-Bavarian dialect. Most Franconians do not call themselves Bavarians.
Even though there is no Franconian state, red and white are regarded as the state colours Landesfarben of Franconia. The proportion of Roman Catholics and Protestants among the population of Franconia is roughly the same, but varies from region to region.
For example, regions, that used to be under the care of the bishoprics of Bamberg, Würzburg and Eichstätt, are mainly Catholic today.
On the other hand, all former territories of the imperial cities and the margraviates of Ansbach and Bayreuth have remained mainly Lutheran.
The region around the city of Erlangen , which belonged to the Margraviate of Bayreuth, was a refuge for the Huguenots who fled there after the St.
Bartholomew's Day massacre in France. The influx of immigrants from Eastern Europe has also seen the establishment of an Orthodox community in Franconia.
Before the Nazi era Franconia was as a region with significant Jewish communities, most of whom were Ashkenazi Jews.
In the Middle Ages, Franconia was a stronghold of Torah studies. But Franconia also began to exclude the Jewish populations particularly early on.
Franconia also rose to early prominence in the discrimination of Jews during the Nazi era. Adherents of Islam continue to grow, especially in the larger cities, due to the influx of gastarbeiters and other immigrants from Muslim countries.
As a result, many 'backyard mosques' Hinterhofmoscheen have sprung up, which are gradually being replaced by purpose-built mosques.
Franconia has almost small breweries. Food typical for the region includes Bratwurst especially the famous small Nuremberger Bratwurst , Schäuferla roast pork shoulder , Sauerbraten , dumplings, potato salad typically made with broth , fried carp , Grupfder seasoned cheese spread , Presssack a type of Head cheese : pressed or jellied pork trimmings, like tongue, cheeks, etc.
Lebkuchen are a traditional type of biscuit, and Küchla is a sort of sweet fried dough. Three Nuremberger Bratwürste in a roll Drei im Weckla.
Franconian wine is traditionally filled up in Bocksbeutels. The tourism industry stresses the romantic character of Franconia.
Franconian wine , the rich tradition of beer brewing and local culinary specialities, such as Lebküchnerei or gingerbread baking, are also seen as a draw that is worth marketing,   and which make Franconia a popular tourist destination in Germany.
The Romantic Road , the best known German theme route , links several of the tourist high points in western Franconia.
The Franconian countryside is suitable for many sporting activities. Cycling along the large rivers is very popular, for example along the Main Cycleway , which was the first German long distance cycleway to be awarded five starts by the Allgemeiner Deutscher Fahrrad-Club ADFC.
The Tauber Valley Cycleway , a kilometre-long cycle trail in Tauber Franconia , was the second German long distance cycleway to receive five stars.
In the Fichtel Mountains and the Franconian Forest , many tourists come for making hiking tours. In winter people can do skiing f.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Franconia disambiguation. Cultural region of Germany.
Coat of arms. Main article: Name of the Franks. Further information: Name of France. Walberla in Franconia. Water wheel at the Regnitz.
Aerial view of the Veste Coburg. Main article: History of Franconia. Main article: Duchy of Franconia. Schlenkerla Rauchbier straight from the cask.
Fried Carp with beer and salad. Germany portal. This refers to the much larger area which later became the German Kingdom and of which the whole of the Duchy of Franconia was a part.
Franken im Mittelalter , ed. Lexikon etymologischer Dubletten im Deutschen. Berlin, , p. Stuttgart, , pp.
Mundart im Raum Heilbronn Bausteine zu einer Unterrichtseinheit. Archived from the original on July 21, Retrieved Internationale Edition.
International Edition. Germany: A regional and economic geography 2nd ed. London: Methuen, p Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Geowissenschaften.
Publication by the Natural History Museum, Schleusingen, vol. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde, Serie B. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paläontologie. Rayfield, Paul M. Barrett, Andrew R. In: Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.
Fieldiana Geology, New Series, No. Die Würzburger Lügenstein-Affaire. Archived from the original on September 13, Archived from the original on In: Handbuch der Bayerischen Geschichte, begr.
Jahrhunderts, re-published by Andreas Kraus, 3rd, revised edition, Munich, , pp. Gemeinde Altenkunstadt, Altenkunstadt, , p.
Von der germanischen Landnahme bis zum hohen Mittelalter. Würzburg, ; second edition: , pp. Teilbd: Geschichte Frankens bis zum Ausgang des Franken im Mittelalter, ed.
I Nos. Stadtarchiv Meiningen. Zweiter Teil: Jahrhunderts, re-published by Andreas Kraus, 3rd revised edition, Munich, , pp.
Die Opfer des Hexenwahns in Franken. Contour lines : The contour lines evoke Switzerland's varied landscapes.
A pair of hands holding and providing water Globe : another 4 hours earlier Europe, Africa. Right hand pointing to the three dimensions right-hand rule Globe : another 4 hours earlier Africa, Europe, Middle East, Indian Ocean, Asia with the Earth's land masses during the Late Cretaceous period superimposed.
Holding speeches in different languages in the Swiss parliament during the Federal Assembly at Berne Relation graph. Meier: Monnaies The Wall Street Journal.
Retrieved 25 June Swiss National Bank. Retrieved 24 June Retrieved 7 January Last accessed 1 June Last accessed 30 September May Retrieved 26 May Newly Swissed.
Retrieved 17 March The Local Switzerland edition. Retrieved 3 July The Swiss National Bank, responsible for producing Switzerland's money, is planning to introduce new banknotes in after several delays due to technical problems with paper.
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Download as PDF Printable version. Pierre Gauchat and Marcus Korsten. No legal tender anymore, can be exchanged at full nominal value at Swiss National Bank .
Jörg Zintzmeyer. These images are to scale at 0. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.
Hermann Eidenbenz. Guillaume-Henri Dufour. Pierre Gauchat. Water turbine, the solar system and a scheme of propagation of rays of light passing through lenses.
Upper part of the dome-tower as well as the floor plan of the church Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza. Muscular figure of a human body, graph of respiration and the circulation of the blood, and a purple orchis.
Leonhard Euler ; development of the polyhedron , the bridges of Königsberg. Gamma function ; table for the calculation of numbers; diagram of the Solar System.
Hair hygrometer , view of the valley of Chamonix and the Mont Blanc massif; expedition to the Tacul glacier. Conrad Gessner ; branch of a dwarf cherry tree ; foliage of the bush.
Golden eagle based on a woodcut from Gessner's Historiae animalium ; "Metamorphosis of animals"; Latin text from the Historiae Animalium referring to the seven-headed hydra.
Francesco Borromini ; architectural motif from the Basilica of St. John Lateran. Albrecht von Haller ; hexagonal structure of the cell ; cell tissue.Schweizer Münzen- und Banknoten-Online-Katalog: Infos, Bilder, Preise. Banknoten, Aktien SNB: 2. Emission, Franken, Stickerei. Franken in Euro € Umrechnen.ᗌ Realtime kurs: ᐈ Franken (CHF)/Euro € (EUR) Wechselkurs in Echtzeit. Aktueller Historischer kursen für CHF/EUR. Schweizer Banknote Franken Jungbrunnen. Schweiz Franken , Mai Jungbrunnen. ,00 CHF *. Lieferzeit: 2 - 3 Werktage. zum Artikel. Änderung oder Löschung im Register bis Franken D. Investmentunternehmen und Verwaltungsgesellschaften28 Art. 11 Erteilung von Bewilligungen Many towns grew up along large rivers or were founded by the prince-bishops 500 Franken nobility. Beck, Munich, Mrgreen.De, chapter on learn more here Reparationsfrage", pp. In the Fichtel Mountains and the Franconian Forestmany tourists come for making hiking tours. This is due to fact that most natural lakes in Germany are glacial or volcanic in origin, and Franconia escaped both influences in recent earth history. The third series of Swiss banknotes was printed in ; some of the notes were issued as war notes, while others were kept as reserve. Daily temperatures in the Bavarian part of Franconia are an average of 0. The hills of the Franconian Jura in the south mark the border with the Upper Bavarian region Altbayernhistorical Swabiaand the Read more basin.